ggplot的使用

基本用法

#install and load the ggplot2 library:
install.packages("ggplot2")
library(ggplot2)

#create the ggplot object with the data and the aesthetic mapping:
scatterplot = ggplot(WHO, aes(x = GNI, y = FertilityRate))

scatterplot + geom_point()


#make a line graph instead:
scatterplot + geom_line()


#redo the plot with blue triangles instead of circles:
scatterplot + geom_point(color = "blue", size = 3, shape = 17)


#another option:
scatterplot + geom_point(color = "darkred", size = 3, shape = 8)


#add a title to the plot:
scatterplot + geom_point(colour = "blue", size = 3, shape = 17) + ggtitle("Fertility Rate vs. Gross National Income")


一些高级用法

#color the points by region:
ggplot(WHO, aes(x = GNI, y = FertilityRate, color = Region)) + geom_point()


#color the points according to life expectancy:
ggplot(WHO, aes(x = GNI, y = FertilityRate, color = LifeExpectancy)) + geom_point()


# Is the fertility rate of a country was a good predictor of the percentage of the population under 15?
ggplot(WHO, aes(x = FertilityRate, y = Under15)) + geom_point()


# Let's try a log transformation:
ggplot(WHO, aes(x = log(FertilityRate), y = Under15)) + geom_point()


#simple linear regression model to predict the percentage of the population under 15, using the log of the fertility rate:
mod = lm(Under15 ~ log(FertilityRate), data = WHO)

#add this regression line to our plot:
ggplot(WHO, aes(x = log(FertilityRate), y = Under15)) + geom_point() + stat_smooth(method = "lm")


#99% confidence interval
ggplot(WHO, aes(x = log(FertilityRate), y = Under15)) + geom_point() + stat_smooth(method = "lm", level = 0.99)


#no confidence interval in the plot
ggplot(WHO, aes(x = log(FertilityRate), y = Under15)) + geom_point() + stat_smooth(method = "lm", se = FALSE)


#change the color of the regression line:
ggplot(WHO, aes(x = log(FertilityRate), y = Under15)) + geom_point() + stat_smooth(method = "lm", colour = "orange")